Mosaik aus Wald und Wasser auf der Finnischen Seenplatte, das Richtung Norden zunehmend durch Moorflächen unterbrochen wird

Klimawandel im Norden — das Waldgrenzökoton im Fokus der Wissenschaft



Alm, J. (1997): CO2 and CH4 fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands. Joensuu.
Autio, J./Heikkinen, O. (2002): The climate of northern Finland. IN: Fennia International Journal of Geography 2002 (180), S. 61–66.
Bartlett, K. B./R. C. Harriss (1993): Review and assessment of methane emissions from wetlands. IN: Chemosphere 26 (1–4), S. 261–320.
BMU (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit) (2013): Deutschland baut Engagement im Waldschutz aus. Berlin.[backPid]=2809
Bonan, G. B./ Pollard, D./S. L. Thompson (1992): Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate. IN: Nature 359, S. 716–718.
Callaghan, T.V./Crawford, R. M. M./Eronen, M./Hofgaard, A./Payette, S./Rees, W.G./Skre, O./Sveinbjörnsson, B./Vlassova, T.K./B. R. Werkman (2002): The Dynamics of the Tundra-Taiga Boundary: An Overview and Suggested Coordinated and Integrated Approach to Research. IN: Ambio, Special Report 12, S. 3–5.
Gorham, Eville (1991): Northern Peatlands: Role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climate warming. Minnesota.
Grace, J./Berninger, F./L. Nagy (2002): Impacts of climate change on the tree line. IN: Annals of Botany 90, S. 537–544.
Harsch, M. A./Hulme, P. E./McGlone, M. S./R. P. Duncan (2009): Are treelines advancing? A global meta-analysis of treeline response to climate warming. IN: Ecology Letters 12, S. 1040–1049.
Heikkinen, O./Tuovinen, M./J. Autio (2002): What determines the timberline? IN: Fennia International Journal of Geography 180, S. 67–74.
Helama, S./Salminen, H./Timonen, M./M. Varmola (2008): Dendroclimatological analysis of seeded and thinned Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands at the coniferous timberline. IN: New Forests 35 (3), S. 267–284.
Holtmeier, F.-K. (2005): Change in the timberline ecotone in northern Finnish Lapland during the last thirty years. (in memory of Paavo Kallio, 1914–1992, who introduced me to Lapland). IN: Reports from the Kevo Subarctic Research Station (23), S. 97–113.
Holtmeier, F.-K./G. Broll (2005): Sensitivity and response of northern hemisphere altitudinal and polar treelines to environmental change at landscape and local scales. IN: Global Ecological Biogeography 14, S. 395–410.
Holtmeier, F.-K./G. Broll (2011): Response of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) to Warming Climate at Its Altitudinal Limit in Northernmost Subarctic Finland. IN: Arctic 64(3), S. 269–280.
Hyppönen, M. (2013): The changes of forest timberline in Northern Finland during 1983–2009. Präsentation vom 13.–15.03.2013 in Kilpisjärvi.
IPCC(1) (2014): WGII AR5 Chapter 23. Europe.
IPCC(2) (2014): WGII AR5 Chapter 4. Terrestrial and Inland Water Systems.
Jalkanen, R. (2003): Havupuutaimikoiden tuhojen esiintyminen ja merkittävyys Suomessa. Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 1/2003, S. 59–68.
Jorgenson, M. T./Racine, C. H./Walters, J. C./T. E. Osterkamp (2001): Permafrost degradation and ecological changes associated with a warming climate in Central Alaska. Climate Change 48, S. 551–579.
Juday, G. P./Barber, V. A./Vaganov, E./Sparrow (2004): Boreal Forest and Agricultural Responses to Climate Warming. The ACIA International Scientific Symposium on Climate Change in the Arctic. AMAP Report. 4. Aufl.
Juntunen, V./S. Neuvonen (2006): Natural Regeneration of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Close to the Timberline in Northern Finland. IN: Silva Fennica 40 (3), S. 443–458.
Juntunen, V./Neuvonen, S./Norokorpi, Y./T. Tasanen (2002): Potential for Timberline Advance in Northern Finland, as Revealed by Monitoring during 1983–99. IN: Arctic 55(4), S. 348–361.
Kallio, P./Hurme, H./Eurola, S./Norokorpi, Y./P. Sepponen (1985): Research Activities on the Forest Line in Northern Finland. IN: Arctic 39 (1), S. 52–58.
Karjalainen, T./Kellomäki, S. (1995): Simulation of forest and wood product carbon budget under a changing climate in Finland. IN: Apps, M. J./Price, D. T./J. Wisniewski (Hg.) (1994): Boreal forests and global change. Peer₋reviewed manuscripts selected from the International Boreal Forest Research Association Conference, held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, September 25–30, 1994.
Karlsen, S. R./Elvebakk, A./B. Johansen (2005): A vegetation-based method to map climatic variation in the arctic-boreal transition area of Finnmark, north-easternmost Norway. IN: Journal of Biogeography 2005, S. 1161–1186.
Kavanagh, K./M. Kellman (1986): Performance of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. at the centre and northern edge of its range: a comparison. IN: Journal of Biogeography 1986 (133), S. 145–157.
Kellomäki, S./Hänninen, H./M. Kolström (1995): Computations on frost damage to Scots pine under climatic warming in boreal conditions. IN: Ecological Applications 1995 (5), S. 42–52.
Kottek, M./Rubel, F. (2010): Observed and projected climate shifts 1901–2100 depicted by world maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Institute for Veterinary Public Health.
Kullmann, L. (2007): Tree line population monitoring of Pinus sylvestris in the Swedish Scandes, 1973–2005: implications for tree line theory and climate change ecology. IN: Journal of Ecology 95, S. 41–52.
Kultti, S./Mikkola, K./Virtanen, T./Timonen, M./M. Eronen (2006): Past changes in the Scots pine forest line and climate in Finnish Lapland: a study based on megafossils, lake sediments, and GIS-based vegetation and climate data. IN: Holocene 16 (3), S. 381–391.
Langer, M. (2010): Klimawandel in Nordostfinnland. Dynamik von Sommerniederschlägen sowie Bedeutung von stratenspezifischer Interzeption borealer Waldvegetation auf den Landschaftswasserhaushalt. Saarbrücken: Südwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften.
Lawrence, D. M./A. G. Slater (2005): A projection of severe near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. IN: Geophysical Research Letters 32, S. 1–5.
Leinonen, I./Tapani, R./H. Hänninen (1996): Changing environmental effects on frost hardiness of Scots pine during dehardening. IN: Annals of Botany 79, S. 133–138.
Mälkönen, E. (2010): Forest condition in a changing environment – The Finnish case. Forestry Sciences 65. Springer, London.
Mielikäinen, K. (2010): Dependence of tree annual diameter growth on weather factors. IN: Mälkönen, E.: Forest condition in a changing environment – The Finnish case. Forestry Sciences 65. Springer, London.
Miller, P. A./B. Smith (2012): Modelling tundra vegetation response to recent arctic warming. IN: AMBIO 41, S. 281–291.
Newell, J. (2004): The Russian Far East – A Reference Guide for Conservation and Development. California.
Partanen, J./Koski, V./Hanninen, H. (1998): Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the timing of bud burst in Norway spruce (Picea abies). IN: Tree Physiology 18(12), S. 811–816.
Pensa, M./Sepp, M./R. Jalkanen (2006): Connections between climatic variables and the growth and needle dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Estonia and Lapland. IN: International Journal of Biometeorology 50 (4), S. 205–214.
Rinn, F. (2003): TSAP-Win – Time Series Analysis and Presentation for Dendrochronology and related Applications – Version 0.53 User Reference. Heidelberg.
Ritchie, J. C. (2008): Postglacial Vegetation of Canada. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schultz, J. (2000): Handbuch der Ökozonen. Stuttgart.
Seo, J.-W./Salminen, H./Jalkanen, R./D. Eckstein (2010): Chronological Coherence between Intra-Annual Height and Radial Growth of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Northern Boreal Zone of Finland. IN: Baltic Forestry 16(1), S. 57–65.
Seppä, H. (1996): Post-glacial dynamics of vegetation and tree lines in the far north of Fennoscandia. IN: Fennia 1996 (174:2).
Strömgren, M. (2001): Soil-Surface CO2 Flux and Growth in a Boreal Norway Spruce Stand – Effects of soil warming and nutrition. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Silvestria (220).
Susiluoto, S./Hilasvuori, E./F. Berninger (2010): Testing growth limitation hypothesis for subarctic Scots pine. IN: Journal of Ecology 98, S. 1186–1195.
Treter, U. (1993): Die borealen Waldländer. Das geographische Seminar. Braunschweig.
Treter, U. (2000): Rolle der borealen Waldländer im globalen CO2-Haushalt – Eine ökosystemare Analyse. IN: Geographische Rundschau Heft 12. Braunschweig.
Tuhkanen, Sakari (1980): Climatic parameters and indices in plant geography. Stockholm. IN: Schultz, Jürgen (2000): Handbuch der Ökozonen. Stuttgart.
Tuomenvirta, H. (2010): Climatic and weather conditions. Climate change. IN: Mälkönen, E.: Forest condition in a changing environment – The Finnish case. Forestry Sciences 65. Springer, London.
Vajda, A./A. Venäläinen (2005): Feedback processes between climate, surface and vegetation at the northern climatological tree-line (Finnish Lapland). IN: Boreal Environment Research 2005 (10), S. 299–314.
Väre, H./Ohtonen, R./K. Mikkola (1996): The effect and extent of heavy grazing by reindeer in oligotrophic pine heaths in northeastern Fennoscandia. IN: Ecography 19, S. 245–253.
Varmola, M./Salminen, H./M. Timonen (2004): Thinning Response and Growth Trends of Seeded Scots Pine Stands at the Arctic Timberline. IN: Silva Fennica 2004 (38), S. 71–83.
Venzke, J.-F. (2008): Die Borealis – Die Zukunft der nördlichen Wälder. Darmstadt.
Walter, H./Breckle, S.-W. (1999): Vegetation und Klimazonen. Stuttgart.
Wramneby, A./Smith, B./P. Samuelsson (2010): Hot spots of vegetation-climate feedbacks under future greenhouse forcing in Europe. IN: Journal of Geophysical Research 115, S. 1–12.
Zhang, W./Miller, P. A./Smith, B./Wania, R./Koenigk, T./R. Döscher (2013): Tundra shrubification and tree-line advance amplify arctic climate warming: results from an individual-based dynamic vegetation model. IN: Enviromental Research Letters 8 (3), S. 1–10.

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.